Exercise 3 Frozen Caveman

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For IGCSE ESL Exercise 3 Frozen Caveman, you have to read an article and make brief notes under supplied headings.

mountains, frozen, caveman, snow

This IGCSE ESL Exercise 3 about the discovery of a frozen caveman is in a computer-based version which is different in format from the paper-based version of the IGCSE ESL Examination.

IGCSE ESL Exercise 3 Frozen Caveman

Read the article.  Write words under the different headings.

Many thousands of years after his death, a Stone Age man found frozen in the Alps in Austria in Central Europe is slowly revealing his secrets to a global team of scientists. Despite more than a decade of high-tech efforts by experts, many questions about his life and death remain unsolved. Moreover, rumours of a deadly curse on those who found him continue to grow.  

German amateur mountaineer Helmut Simon and his wife spotted 'Oetzi', as the Stone Age man has since become known, in a valley in the mountains between Italy and Austria in 1991. At first glance, they thought it was the body of an unfortunate hiker. Forensic scientists also failed to recognise the significance of the discovery on first inspection. Only recently have new methods such as DNA testing produced a clearer picture of his life.

Data analysed from soil and water samples has already shown that Oetzi grew up in the Pustertal region south of the Alps and left his home valley when he was 20 to 30 years old. Archaeologists believe he may have been a kind of travelling healer because he used medicinal herbs. A series of short, dark, parallel lines on his chest have been identified as an early form of acupuncture used to treat his bone problems.  

But even the best scientists have been unable to explain his death. In 2001, with the help of digital X-ray images, doctors detected an arrowhead in the Stone Age man’s shoulder blade.

Data analysed from soil and water samples has already shown that Oetzi grew up in the Pustertal region south of the Alps and left his home valley when he was 20 to 30 years old. Archaeologists believe he may have been a kind of travelling healer because he used medicinal herbs. A series of short, dark, parallel lines on his chest have been identified as an early form of acupuncture used to treat his bone problems.  

But even the best scientists have been unable to explain his death. In 2001, with the help of digital X-ray images, doctors detected an arrowhead in the Stone Age man’s shoulder blade. DNA tests also revealed traces of blood from four different people on Oetzi’s clothes. He also had a deep cut between his first finger and thumb, possibly as the result of a fight. “He could have been a tribal leader who was the victim of a political plot and assassinated by his own tribe,” says Professor Walter Leitner, “or members of an enemy tribe might have attacked him and robbed him. Alternatively, in an injured state, he could simply have been overcome by the extreme weather conditions that arrive with little warning in the mountains.”

But even the best scientists have been unable to explain his death. In 2001, with the help of digital X-ray images, doctors detected an arrowhead in the Stone Age man’s shoulder blade. DNA tests also revealed traces of blood from four different people on Oetzi’s clothes. He also had a deep cut between his first finger and thumb, possibly as the result of a fight. “He could have been a tribal leader who was the victim of a political plot and assassinated by his own tribe,” says Professor Walter Leitner, “or members of an enemy tribe might have attacked him and robbed him. Alternatively, in an injured state, he could simply have been overcome by the extreme weather conditions that arrive with little warning in the mountains.”  

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